Coursera: Gamification Notes II

Motivation & Psychology (I)

For Gamification you need psychology to a certain degree to understand users motivation and making gamification effective. Motivation is different for everyone and can be counterintuitive. 

Cognitivism - about the mental states, internally.

Behaviorism - looking externally at what people do. Testing what goes in and out of the persons behavior. Making a stimulus connect with a behavior and leading to something good or a consequence. 

  • Observation - Pick up on people's reaction and learn from it.
  • Feedback loops - Users seeing this learn and get a reaction from it.
  • Reinforcement - Learning between motivation and gamification system.

Behavioral economics - "lets look at what people actually do"

  • Loss aversion 
  • Power of default
  • Confirmation bias

  • Tangible/intangible
  • Expected/unexpected
  • Contingency
    • Task noncontingent
    • Engagement
    • Completion
    • Performance

Reward Schedules - A time framework that the reward is given. have a significant implications for the psychological reaction that the rewards produce.  
  • Continuous - Least interesting to users
  • Fixed Ratio*  - Easy to due but doesn't last long for the user. 
  • Fixed Interval*  - Easy to due but doesn't last long for the user.
  • Variable - Most interesting to the user but hard to implement. Example the Slot Machine.
    • Competitive/Non-competitive
    • Certainty/Uncertainty
Good as gamification can be its important to not get the user too addicted that they can no longer make good judgments like with the Slot Machine.

References
Apple Store - Lounges rather than a quick checkout process.
World of WarCraft - "Accomplished Angler"

Resources
Operant conditioning


Motivation & Psychology (II)

Limits of Behaviorism - "it does not get you as focused much on what's actually going on, what's really deep-down motivating people".

Dangers of Behaviorism - leveraging the behavior of people can be dangers to the users, the business's image and government policies.  

Hedonic Tradmill - Feedback loop needs to consistent or it has no effect. This can be difficult to keep up with for the developer. 

The mind is a great pattern recognizer and will look for patterns to anticipate when the reward will be coming. At that point the rewards will be no longer meaningful to the player.

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic - Focusing on completing something just to do it. "I'm doing it because I want to do it."
Extrinsic - "Doing something for the reward but not about the thing itself".

SAPS (Zichermann)
Rated in order of the cost to implement. Status being the cheapest.
  • Status
  • Access
  • Power
  • Stuff
How rewards can de-motivate
Rewards acting as intrinsic motivators can chase out the intrinsic reward that the player already had. Leading to a overjustification effect to the user. This happens when a user substitutes an intrinsic reward an extrinsic which can reduce the players motivation. 

Self-Determination Theory - People are not always motivated  by rewards. using the Motivational spectrum. 

Competence - Your are achieving something!
Autonomy - Doing it on your own choice.
Relatedness - Something be on yourself.

References
Tom Stuker - Achievement with United Airlines. 

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